单词详解 | sneeze



People can catch it through close contact and from coughs and sneezes.

Health curriculums arrived in public schools in the 1920s, including the “handkerchief drill,” in which children as young as kindergarten students were taught to sneeze into their handkerchiefs with “military-style precision.”
健康课程于 1920 年代进入公立学校,其中包括“手帕训练”,从小到幼儿园的孩子都被教导用“军人式的精确度”用手帕打喷嚏。
Washington Post

It spreads person-to-person through contact with the feces of an infected person or droplets from a sneeze or cough, and less often with contaminated water and food.
Washington Post

exhale spasmodically, as when an irritant entered one’s nose
v. 打喷嚏


When you sneeze, you blow air forcefully (and involuntarily) out of your nose and mouth, possibly while making a sound that might be spelled "achoo!" Allergies, pepper, and dust are all famous for making people sneeze.

Behind every sneeze is some kind of irritant, a foreign substance that bothers the mucous membranes inside your nose. Pollen, cat dander, and the inflammation of your nose caused by a cold virus can all cause a sneeze (or several sneezes). When you sneeze, muscles in your face, neck, and chest contract reflexively. In rare cases, very bright lights or eating a large meal can make people sneeze. Go figure!

Late the next day we had got down there and were creeping along that same snow-slope, very softly, not sneezing, lest we bring down the avalanche.
The Left Hand of Darkness by Ursula K. Le Guin

So much pepper is being ground at the moment that we sneeze and cough with every breath we take.
The Diary of a Young Girl by Anne Frank

Ralph dug through his old papers, sneezing as he explored one box after another; somehow they’d grown dusty in the move.
Typical American by Gish Jen

sneeze (v.)late 15c., from Old English fneosan "to snort, sneeze," from Proto-Germanic fneusanan (compare: Middle Dutch fniesen, Dutch fniezen "to sneeze;" Old Norse fnysa "to snort;" Old Norse hnjosa, Swedish nysa "to sneeze;" Old High German niosan, German niesen "to sneeze"), from Proto-Germanic base fneu-s- "sneeze," of imitative origin, as is PIE pneu- "to breathe" (source of Greek pnein "to breathe").Other imitative words for it, perhaps in various ways related to each other, include Latin sternuere (source of Italian starnutare, French éternuer, Spanish estornudar), Breton strevia, Sanskrit ksu-, Lithuanian čiaudėti, Polish kichać, Russian čichat’.English forms in sn- might be due to a misreading of the uncommon fn- (represented in only eight words in Clark Hall, mostly in words to do with breathing), or from Norse influence. OED suggests Middle English fnese had been reduced to simple nese by early 15c., and sneeze is a "strengthened form" of this, "assisted by its phonetic appropriateness." Related: Sneezed; sneezing. To sneeze at "to regard as of little value" (usually with negative) is attested from 1806.Related entries & more 

sneeze (v.)late 15c.,源自古英语 fneosan“打喷嚏,打喷嚏”,源自原始日耳曼语
fneusanan(比较:中古荷兰语 fniesen,荷兰语 fniezen“打喷嚏”;古挪威语 fnysa“打喷嚏”;古挪威语hnjosa,瑞典语 nysa “打喷嚏”;古高地德语 niosan,德语 niesen “打喷嚏”),源自原始日耳曼语系 fneu-s- “打喷嚏”,模仿起源,如 PIE pneu- “呼吸” (希腊语 pnein“呼吸”的来源)。它的其他模仿词,可能以各种方式相互关联,包括拉丁语 sternuere(意大利语 starnutare、法语 éternuer、西班牙语 estornudar 的来源)、布列塔尼 strevia、梵语 ksu-、立陶宛语čiaudėti、波兰语 kichać、俄语 čichat'。sn- 中的英语形式可能是由于对不常见的 fn- 的误读(在 Clark Hall 中仅用八个词表示,主要是与呼吸有关的词),或来自挪威语的影响。 OED 表明中古英语 fnese 到 15 世纪早期已经简化为简单的 nese,而 sneeze 是这种形式的“强化形式”,“在其语音适当性的帮助下”。相关:打喷嚏;打喷嚏。从 1806 年开始证明对“认为没有价值”(通常带有否定)打喷嚏。相关条目及更多

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